in industrial quantities
in industrial quantities
Xanthohumol is a natural flavonoid extracted from the hop. The beneficial activity of this compound in the human body is staggeringly broad. Xanthohumol is an excellent antioxidant. It delays aging, increases vigor and is highly effective against fungi, bacteria, viruses and cancer.
In ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) tests, Xanthohumol achieved a score four times greater than pure vitamin C. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of Xanthohumol were tested in vitro in the treatment of breast cancer (MCF-7), colon cancer (HT-29) and ovarian carcinoma (A-2780). Xanthohumol inhibits the growth of a fibrosarcoma and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. It aids the conversion of cholesterol in the body (slows down oxidation of low-density lipoprotein), which reduces the risk of coronary heart diseases. It also exhibits antiviral, antimalarial and antibacterial activity. Xanthohumol effectively acts as a natural pharmaceutics in the infections associated with HIV-1.
Xanthohumol is a natural compound found in the female inflorescences of Common Hops (Humulus Lupulus L. ), a perennial climbing plant that is commonly added to beer to improve flavor, aroma, bitterness, frothy texture and preservation.
Common hop (Humulus Lupulus L. ) contains plenty of different substances, including flavonoids classified as polyphenolic compounds. The dominant hop flavonoid is Xanhtohumol.
Xanthohumol, as a natural component of hops, is truly unique in botany – called “a miracle of nature” for good reason. It is a prenylated flavonoid in the rank of chalcone which occurs only in hop flowers. It is worth mentioning that hops grown in our climatic zone (European-moderate climate) are qualitatively the best in the world.
A prenylated flavonoid is a flavonoid that exhibits prenylation abilities, i.e. the ability to modify proteins in, for example, the human body. Prenylation involves enabling so-called protein anchoring to cell membranes and plays an important role in protein-protein interactions themselves. Protein prenylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis, hence all prenylation inhibitors (including Xanthohumol) are being investigated as potential cancer drugs.
The essence of chalcones themselves is that always every chalcone has a broad spectrum of biological activity, including pharmacological properties, and that every chalcone is a flavonoid and not every flavonoid is a chalcone. Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one) are acetophenone derivatives and are an intermediate product in flavonoid biosynthesis. They are lipophilic compounds with a yellow color. A characteristic feature of the chalcone molecule is an open heterocyclic ring, the closure of which converts the chalcone into the flavanone system. Chalcones are non-permanent compounds and are in dynamic equilibrium with their respective flavanones.
Xanthohumol exhibits remarkable antimicrobial activity, inhibits the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T.rubrum, Gram-positive bacteria of the Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium genera, as well as DNA and RNA viruses, among others.
Xanthohumol exhibits antioxidant activity by neutralizing free radicals, which prevents the development of inflammation. It exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity of xanthohumol indicates its potential to combat and prevent various inflammation-related diseases, which is also crucial for COVID-19. Studies performed so far show that SARS-CoV-2 virus attacks human cells by targeting the membrane receptor of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Binding of the viral Spike protein to the ACE2 receptor present in the cell membrane mediates fusion of the virus into the cell and subsequent replication. ACE2 receptors have been specifically detected in nasal epithelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, lung cells, and the lumen surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, the nose, throat, lungs, and intestines facilitate viral entry and serve as potential sites of viral invasion. It should be added that ACE2 receptors are most abundant in the cells of people with so-called civilization diseases. The available results confirm the protective effect of xanthohumol on endothelial cells of human umbilical vein damaged by ACE2-activated receptor. Administration of xanthohumol significantly increased the viability of damaged cells from 53.9 to 74.9%. It should also be emphasized that xanthohumol effectively alleviated clinical signs, inflammatory reactions in lung tissues of farm animals.